Concept Tutorials

Instructional Designer Profession and ADDIE

This short tutorial provides an overview of the profession of Instructional Designer, It articulates this profession as the process of identifying the causes of human performance problems and, as appropriate, developing instructional solutions to problems rooted in knowledge, skill, and attitude deficiencies (those characteristic that are learned).

Instruction is described as purposeful - its purpose is to facilitate and support learning, suggesting that Instructional designers must develop competencies in instructional and learning theories, ID processes, and technology & tools ... and collaborate with others to ultimate design and develop \"good\" instruction.
The tutorial continues with a brief overall of the ADDIE framework that guide much of the problem solving done in the complex domains of Instructional Designer work. The ADDIE framework consists of five phases: Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluation. Although often written or graphically presented in a linear format ADDIE is a generic problem-solving process that is quite systematic, systemic, reflective, and iterative. Various ID models have combined, changed the order, or otherwise modified the phases and tasks ADDIE to created effective instruction, however most contain all the ADDIE phases in some way.

Accompanying the tutorial is a script (link below). If you are unable to access, see, or hear the tutorial open the script and review from the printed version (pdf).

Instructional Designer Profession and ADDIE

Instructional Designer Competencies

This short tutorial provides an overview defining the competent Instructional Designer. It begins with a definition of competency and the notion of a set of standards that defines the work of an instructional designer, as internationally validated by the International Boards of Standards for Training, Performance, and Instruction (ibstpi). Competency is defined as the knowledge, skills, & attitudes to successfully perform a job.

The ibstpi standards framework consists of domains of practice made up of competencies with associated performance statements (measures of each competency). The framework consists of: 5 domains, 22 competencies, and 105 supporting performance statements (measures) for the Instructional Designer. Each statement is also rated as essential (characteristics of all IDs), experienced (characteristics of more senior IDs), or managerial (characteristics of those ID or managers who have management responsibilities).
Development of high-level competence [full expertise] requires initial study and continued practice on multiple projects over a series of years.

Accompanying the tutorial is a script (link below). If you are unable to access, see, or hear the tutorial open the script and review from the printed version (pdf).

Instructional Designer Competencies

Primer on Levels of Processing and Learning

This tutorial describes surface and deep learning from a cognitive / schema development perspective. The tutorial provides a visual model of the learning process based on a simple content domain on animals. Accompanying the tutorial is a script (linked below the tutorial). If you are unable to access, see, or hear the tutorial open the script and review from the printed version (pdf).

Primer on Levels of Processing and Learning

Writing Learning Objectives

One of the most critical tasks in creating instruction is to write learning objectives that will describe what learners should be able to know, do, or feel as a result of participating in instruction.

This is NOT about the activities they will participate in … it is about the learning that should occur. This tutorial describes how to think about, compose, and write learning objectives for instruction. Although there are many models for writing learning objectives one that is well accepted is behavioral objectives. This tutorial will demonstrate how to write such objectives based on the type of learning (e.g., cognitive, affective, or motor skills) and the level at which the student should demonstrate these knowledge or skills (e.g., lower order to higher order).

Below is attached a 1-page guideline with examples of behavioral learning objectives.

Writing Learning Objectives

Assessment and Instructional Strategies

Once learning objectives are established it is important to create assessment (tests) that help measure learning progress towards expected learning outcomes and to identify instructional strategies that help learners move toward learning, based on the objectives, The tutorial describes how to create learning assessments aligned to instructional goals and learning objectives and how to make instructional strategy choices based on learning objectives.

Below is attached a 2-page guideline with a table of Bloom’s taxonomy that shows verbs for learning objectives and sample instructional strategies at each learning outcome level.

Assessment and Instructional Strategies