Publications, conferences, RAPs

2022


Liu, R., Wang, L., Koszalka, T. A., & Wan, K. (2022). Effects of immersive virtual reality classrooms on students' academic achievement, motivation and cognitive load in science lessons. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12688

Abstract

Immersive virtual reality (IVR) applications that support student learning have gained increasing interest. However, empirical studies exploring the educational potential of using IVR in primary school science classrooms are lacking. This study developed a series of IVR science lessons for primary school students and examined the effects of these lessons on learning outcomes. Our mixed-method approach employed pre-and post-tests to measure academic achievement, questionnaires to measure motivation and cognitive load, and semi-structured interviews to further explore students’ feelings and attitudes about IVR science lessons. Participants included 362 Grade 4 students randomly assigned to either the experimental (IVR-based classroom) or control (traditional classroom) groups. The experimental group engaged in IVR science lessons using head-mounted displays; the control group learned the same material through traditional methods. The results showed that the IVR-based classroom significantly improved primary students’ academic achievement and science motivation and decreased their cognitive load. Moreover, the experimental group reported positive experiences with the IVR science lessons. These findings help unpack the relationships between IVR and academic achievement, science motivation, and cognitive load in primary school science lessons, thus providing insight on integrating IVR into existing classrooms.

Pavlov, Y. (2022). The impact of the literary conflict type on lexical equivalents in audiovisual translation. Proceedings of the 4th Annual International Conference on Teaching Foreign Languages in the Polycultural World: Traditions, Innovations, Perspectives Held on 24 March 2022 in Minsk (Belarus), 99–102. [in Russian]

Abstract

Knowledge of the types of literary conflicts embedded in audiovisual materials helps translators find more accurate lexical equivalents in the target language. Conflicts generate certain emotions in fictional characters. The translator’s objective is to make the audience perceive the translation similarly to how the audience perceives it in the original. However, expression of emotions is different in different languages. Therefore, when the translator knows which type of conflict and what emotions are dominant in a scene, the translator is freer to forgo word-for-word translation in order to preserve the holistic nature of the story and attain the effect on the audience commensurate with that of the original.

Liu, R., Kang, J., Wang, L., & Fan, M. (2022, July 19–21). Effects of immersive virtual reality-based classroom on student engagement in science lessons [Paper presentation]. 2022 International Symposium on Educational Technology, Hong Kong, China.

Abstract

The advancement in immersive virtual reality (IVR) offers many opportunities for science education. This study investigated the effects of an integrated IVR-based classroom on primary school students' academic emotions and learning achievement. A total of 44 fifth-grade students from primary schools were recruited as participants. We used an academic emotion questionnaire to survey students' class-related academic emotions and knowledge posttest to measure the students' understanding of the IVR science lesson. The results show that most of the primary school students experienced positive academic emotions before the class, and "enjoyment", "hope", and "pride" during the class, as well as "enjoyment" and "pride" after the class. Students experienced greater positive emotions than negative emotions. Moreover, they displayed a better understanding of the scientific material taught.

Lei Wang Fall 2021 headshot

Lei, J., Liu, Y., Salim, Z., & Wang, Q. (2022, April 21–26). Lessons from parents’ perspectives on K–12 online remote instruction during COVID-19: A revised curriculum framework [Poster session]. 2022 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, United States.

Abstract

Much research has been conducted to understand and examine K-12 online/hybrid learning during the COVID-19 global pandemic, however, little research has studied this unique educational situation from the parents’ perspective. Using Schwab’s Traditional Curriculum Design Framework, this study examined the four common places of education for K-12 students’ emergency remote education (ERE) based on parent’s input. By qualitatively analyzing 662 comments from parents and guardians during Fall 2020 semester, this study identified the key pedagogical challenges, technological barriers, and mental health concerns during the ERE, and proposed a revised Framework to guide further research and practice in preparing for quality online/hybrid education in the future.

Yang Liu

Melese, F. M. (2022). Re-design and development of online resources for the "College Learning Strategies (CLS 105)" course with Dr. Rob S. Pusch [SUPA Project]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

CLS 105 is the study and application of strategic approaches to learning. Using currently available resources that are made for a flipped classroom setting, Fasika Melese and Rob Pusch are redesigning the course as an independent online course as part of the Syracuse University Project Advance (SUPA) educational program. Articulate Storyline and Rise are used to author and publish the course.

Melese, F. M. (2022). Collection and analysis of national ICT policy plans of selected countries around the world with Dr. Jing Lei and doctoral student Yang Liu [IDDE Department Project]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

Given the diversity of societies in various countries and regions around the world, this project aims to identify educational technologies that are being used at the national level.

Wang, L. (2022). Validity and reliability of a learning resources rubric [Unpublished manuscript]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

This research apprenticeship practice (RAP) study was supervised by Dr. Tiffany A. Koszalka. Instructional designers (IDs) often consult with university faculty and other educators to create learning resources and platforms in universities to support student learning. As technology emerges, there are promises that learning resources better prompt or enhance learning. However, the resources are designed without consideration of proven or evidence-based learning principles, thus, can result in learning inhibited. Therefore, working with faculty and educators to build and choose effective learning tools that stimulate deep learning in effective and efficient ways presents a challenge for IDs. This is even more challenging for novice IDs. To aid them, a newly developed rubric was created based on principles from three established learning theories: generative learning theory, cognitive flexibility theory, and reflective thinking. The purpose of this study was to establish the content validity and reliability of the learning resources rubric (LRR). Novice IDs (n = 13) were sought from existing social media groups focused on instructional design practices. Quantitative and qualitative data collected during the 3-phase design process resulted in LRR, comprising 10 items on a four-point response scale. A combination of observations, interviews, and online document analysis was used to validate and cross-check findings during the 3-phase design process. Results indicated that LRR’s reliability and validity were found to be satisfactory. The pedagogical and educational contributions of LRR were also explored.

Wu, Q. (2022). A longitudinal study exploring levels and patterns of social presence in asynchronous online discussions [Unpublished manuscript]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

This research apprenticeship practice (RAP) study, supervised by Dr. Tiffany A. Koszalka, was a longitudinal study exploring learners’ social presence behaviors in asynchronous online discussions (AODs). The data were collected from the same cohort of graduate students who took two consecutive online courses over two semesters. Students’ actual social interaction and social presence patterns were observed beyond the self-reporting survey. Content analysis using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework and social networking analysis were used to map out these interactions and relationships among the peers. The findings from this study suggested that AOD instruction stages, student previous relationship, and instructor involvement were all factors that might influenced student social presence in online environment. Ultimately, these findings provided insight for instructional designers and educators on possible instructional techniques to evoke student interaction and social presence in online settings.

Niu, Z. (2022). A longitudinal observation of students’ interaction, cognitive engagement, and content learning in asynchronous online discussions (AODs) [Unpublished manuscript]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

This research apprenticeship practice (RAP) study was supervised by Dr. Tiffany A. Koszalka. It was a longitudinal observation in the context of asynchronous online discussions (AODs). Students construct content knowledge during AODs. Discussion postings show student interactions, cognitive presence (CP) phases, and levels of content learning (CL). The purpose of the RAP was to investigate the distribution, dynamics, and relationships of these interactions, CP and CL variables for the same cohort of graduate students within and across AODs during two consecutive courses, over two semesters. Visualizations were created based on social network analysis and content analysis to analyze student interactions and examine their CP phases and CL levels. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used to triangulate and confirm observations. The results indicated that the CP exploration phase dominated the AODs with a greater number of lower-levels than higher-levels of content learning during AODs. All three variables fluctuated over time, but not all were significant fluctuations.

2021


Yang, X., & Liu, Y. (2021). Supporting students’ reflection in game-based science learning: A literature review. In R. Li, S. K. S. Cheung, C. Iwasaki, L.-F. Kwok, & M. Kageto (Eds.), Blended learning: Re-thinking and re-defining the learning process (pp. 119–131). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80504-3_10

Abstract

Students’ reflection on their gameplay is necessary for a meaningful game-based learning experience, especially in science education. This study reviewed the literature on the design and effects of students’ reflection support in game-based science learning. Fourteen empirical and theoretical articles out of 131 identified articles from four databases were included after the searching and screening process. Findings revealed that reflection support varied in the support type (e.g., in-game prompts or instructor guidance), support triggered time (e.g., during or after gameplay), and response type (e.g., no response, written or spoken). Both in-game reflection prompts and instructor guided-reflection are promising in facilitating students’ science learning, and the effects varied based on the design and implementation of the support. Implications on future studies and design of reflection support in game-based science learning are discussed.

Guo, W., Zhang, M., Lei, J., & Liu, Y. (2021). Synchronous presence & online “face-to-face”: A research synthesis of 26 online synchronous video teaching research studies. China Distance Education, 2, 27–35.

Abstract

During the epidemic period, the main model of large-scale online teaching is synchronous video instruction. It is very different from the traditional asynchronous online instruction. Researchers are required to study the typical characteristics of this online teaching mode and the core elements of the course. Therefore, this paper retrieved 26 research papers focused on synchronous video teaching in ERIC, analyzed and summarized. The results show that: (1) The typical characteristics of synchronous video instruction are: teachers and students are “present” at the same time, cyber “face-to-face”, which significantly improves the presence, participation and satisfaction of online learners. (2) The synchronous video instruction is very similar to the face-to-face classroom. Teachers should plan the main teaching events in advance, and flexibly employ the IT tools of the platform to create the “focus of attention” of online instruction. (3) Online synchronous video learning has become a common and high-frequency social learning behavior. The online video conference interface has become the official “first scene”, and the scene has become the “backstage”.

Wu, Q., Koszalka, T. A., & Niu, Z. (2021). Exploring levels and patterns of social presence in asynchronous online discussions: A longitudinal study. 44th proceedings of the 2021 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 2, 557–565. https://aect.org/pro21i.php

Abstract

Students construct knowledge during asynchronous online discussions (AODs). Discussion postings show students’ cognitive presence (CP) patterns and levels of content learning (CL). The purpose of this longitudinal field observation study was to investigate the patterns of, and relationships among, a same cohort of graduate students’ cognitive presence and content knowledge level demonstrated within and across the AODs in two consecutive courses, over two semesters. Content analysis of online discussion postings, descriptive and correlational statistics were used to analyze data. The results indicated that the exploration was the most active phase emerged in AODs, followed by the integration, triggering event, and resolution. There was a significant change in integration phase of CP and content knowledge levels over time. Moreover, the results yielded significant relationships among CP patterns and content knowledge levels. The findings have important implications theoretically in terms of confirming the CP patterns emerged in AODs and practically by identifying the dynamics of each of the CP phases and their associations with content learning.

Niu, Z., Koszalka, T. A., & Wu, Q. (2021). Investigating cognitive presence patterns and content knowledge levels in asynchronous online discussions (AODs): A longitudinal study. 44th proceedings of the 2021 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1, 181–190. https://aect.org/pro21.php

Abstract

Students construct knowledge during asynchronous online discussions (AODs). Discussion postings show students’ cognitive presence (CP) patterns and levels of content learning (CL). The purpose of this longitudinal field observation study was to investigate the patterns of, and relationships among, a same cohort of graduate students’ cognitive presence and content knowledge level demonstrated within and across the AODs in two consecutive courses, over two semesters. Content analysis of online discussion postings, descriptive and correlational statistics were used to analyze data. The results indicated that the exploration was the most active phase emerged in AODs, followed by the integration, triggering event, and resolution. There was a significant change in integration phase of CP and content knowledge levels over time. Moreover, the results yielded significant relationships among CP patterns and content knowledge levels. The findings have important implications theoretically in terms of confirming the CP patterns emerged in AODs and practically by identifying the dynamics of each of the CP phases and their associations with content learning.

Prakasha, G. S., Hemalathaa, K. Y., Tamizh, P., Bhavna, B., & Kenneth, A. (2021). Online test anxiety and exam performance of international baccalaureate diploma programme students under e-proctored exams amid COVID 19. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 79(6), 942–955. https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.942

Abstract

Outbreak of COVID-19, online examination, and e-proctoring have caused more exam anxiety and affected exam performance among students’ studying in International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP). Therefore, the present research aimed to find effect of online test anxiety on academic performance of IBDP students in the subjects related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Study employed quantitative descriptive survey research design and administered survey questionnaire to 200 IB DP students who took online test during COVID-19 through convenient sampling technique. Sample included both first and final year DP students with due representation to boys and girls. Results of the study revealed a moderate negative correlation between online test anxiety and academic performance of IBDP students in STEM subjects. Regression analysis explained 14.1% variation in the STEM subject performance because of online exam anxiety under e-proctored condition. There exists a statistically significant difference between first and final year students’ online exam anxiety and STEM subject average grades. Future research may focus on conducting comfortable online examination methods with no additional exam anxieties.

Liu, Y., Liu, R., & Lei, J. (2021, November 2–6). The effect of an experiential learning theory based immersive virtual reality learning environment on students’ learning performance [Conference session]. 2021 Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Chicago, IL, United States.

Abstract

Based on the experiential learning theory, by integrating the immersive virtual reality (IVR) into a STEAM course to offer experiential learning activities, we conducted a quasi-experimental study in a middle school in Shanghai, China. Results indicate that the IVR-based instructional strategy had a positive impact on both knowledge retention and higher-order competence development for the participants. Students in the experimental group also reported a better learning experience perceived than the students from the control group.

Yang Liu

Lei, J., Salim, Z., & Liu, Y. (2021, November 2–6). Technological challenges and pedagogical lessons: Understanding K-12 online learning from parents’ perspective [Paper presentation]. 2021 Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Chicago, IL, United States.

Abstract

By qualitatively analyzing 662 comments from parents and guardians on their children’s online learning during the Pandemic, this study examined the pedagogical, technological, and social cultural challenges students and families face in K-12 remote learning. Systematic content analysis revealed four major themes: (1) quality of instruction; (2) management and communication challenges; (3) support for online learning; and (4) health related concerns. Recommendations focused on using technology to manage, design and implement teaching and learning activities.

Zeenar Salim

Walton, A. A., & Wu, Q. (2021, November 2–6). Quality online teaching module for preservice teachers in a technology integration course [Poster presentation]. 2021 Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Chicago, IL, United States.

Abstract

In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, and in order to prepare preservice teacher candidates for teaching in online environments, a series of instructional modules were incorporated into an existing technology integration course. The modules, entitled Quality Online Teaching, were built from the eight National Standards for Quality Online Teaching. Fifty-four undergraduate students completed the modules. In teams, they taught 15-minute online lessons. Evaluation results showed an increase in knowledge and confidence about online teaching.

Amber Walton

Yang, T., Niu, Z., & Lei, J. (2021, November 2–6). The relationships among social presence, cognitive engagement, and knowledge construction in asynchronous online discussions (AODs) [Paper presentation]. 2020 Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Conference—Virtual Convention, United States.

Abstract

This correlational study investigates the relationships among three constructs in terms of higher-ed students’ performance in the asynchronous online discussions. The three constructs include students’ ability of socially interacting with others, their process of developing meaningful discourses, and the knowledge types they contribute to the discussion group. A quantitative content analysis is applied to transforming students’ postings into descriptive and inferential statistics for explaining the relationships.

Tianxiao Yang

Pavlov, Y. (2021, August 21). Dissertation Working Group—support group and distributed leadership [Conference session]. Lifting new voices: Advancing equity in leadership, 2021 Leadership Academy Conference of the National Association of Graduate-Professional Students, Washington, DC, United States.

Abstract

Research shows that doctoral students are more likely to graduate if they have a support group (Hill & Conceição, 2020; Jairam & Kahl, 2012). At Syracuse University, two doctoral students and a professor emeritus started a Dissertation Working Group (DWG) in 2018. Doctoral and sometimes master's students met voluntarily every semester 10 times and shared common concerns, gave feedback on each other’s work, and gave opportunities for students to practice their conference presentation deliveries and dissertation defenses. Informality of the gathering and a sense of shared experience glued the group and helped work with affective struggles that so often accompany doctoral students during their doctoral journeys.

Yuri Pavlov: Dissertation Working Group—support group and distributed leadership

Yuri Pavlov

Lei, J., Wang, Q., Cheng, J., Yang, T., & Liu, Y. (2021, July 7–9). How the design features affect student learning outcomes in MOOCs: Meta-analysis of peer-reviewed empirical studies from 2009–2020 [Paper presentation]. 2021 Annual Focal Meeting of the World Education Research Association, Galicia, Spain.

Abstract

[Abstract is not available at this time].

Tianxiao Yang

Salim, Z. (2021). Tenured faculty's instructional decisions and the factors influencing their decision-making [Unpublished manuscript]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

This research apprenticeship practice (RAP) study, supervised by Dr. Tiffany A. Koszalka, was a pilot study on instructional decision-making. Instructional decision-making is a complex "mental dialogue" of identifying learning goals, creating instructional activities, determining the flow and sequence of content, selecting instructional tools and resources, designing assessment strategies, and flexibly modifying these decisions as needed during the implementation of the instruction. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted conventional instruction, requiring many faculty to adapt their instruction from face-to-face to online or hybrid mode. A grounded theory approach was used to investigate factors influencing award-winning faculty’s choice of instructional strategies and tools during this shift in instructional modality. Ten interviews were conducted with three award-winning faculty members in Spring 2021. The findings suggest that participating award-winning faculty decisions were influenced largely by personal factors, followed by instructional and organizational factors when designing instructional strategies and choosing technological tools. Factors that influence faculty decision-making include approaches to teaching and learning, perceived value of the instructional choice, their prior teaching, and learning experiences, and research and service experiences, student demographics, student participation and feedback, digital eco-system, peer, department, and university’s influence to inform their instructional choices. Based on this preliminary study, faculty developers might more strongly consider questions around faculty’s personal, organizational and socio-cultural factors, when designing faculty professional development on instruction..

Pavlov, Y. (2021). Investigating expressed emotions in collaborative asynchronous online discussions: A pilot study [Unpublished manuscript]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

This research apprenticeship practice (RAP) study, supervised by Dr. Tiffany A. Koszalka, was a pilot study on expessed emotions in text. Research has focused on how students’ positive and negative emotions may have differential effects on learning. However, the role of expressed emotions in asynchronous online discussions (AODs) has not received much attention. Drawing upon the circumplex model of core affect and using content analysis, this pilot study documented naturally expressed emotions in AODs and investigated potential relations between emotions and surface/deep learning. The preliminary results indicated that 30% of all student sentences contained emotional expressions. The students produced mostly neutral sentences (71.43%); positive (22.03%) and negative expressed emotions (6.53%) were less frequent. Positive emotions were interpreted as the degree of evaluative judgements of new information, and negative emotions were interpreted as the degree of integration of new course content into personal experiences. The expressed negative, but not positive, emotions seemed to be related to deep learning.

La Point, G. (2021). The design of synchronous on-line class sections and their impact on depth of learning: A case study comparing faculty of record and adjunct synchronous sessions [Unpublished manuscript]. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Abstract

This research apprenticeship practice (RAP) study, supervised by Dr. Tiffany A. Koszalka, was a descriptive case study. It examined the similarities and differences of two or more online graduate course sections of the same class that consists of an asynchronous component and a synchronous component. In this environment every student reviewed the exact same asynchronous materials. The only difference between the sections was the faculty facilitating the synchronous component. In one section the instructor was the faculty of record who had designed and created the course and all the course materials. An adjunct faculty was the instructor in the other section. This RAP investigated if: (a) there was a difference in the types and frequency of social interactions that took place and what type of learning was demonstrated by the student (i.e., surface learning, higher-order learning); and (b) there are different strategies observed that demonstrate greater social interactions and higher-order learning that could have instructional design implications. This research is accomplished through coding of synchronous class discussions.

Yang, T., Niu, Z., & Lei, J. (2021, April 8–12). Investigating cognitive learning patterns in an asynchronous online discussion (AOD): A directed qualitative content analysis [Paper presentation]. 2021 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association—Virtual Conference, United States.

Abstract

Few studies revealed the students’ cognitive learning performance in the Asynchronous Online Discussion (AOD) activities of distance education. This study employed a directed qualitative content analysis to investigate 1) whether the revised Bloom’s taxonomy scheme can describe students’ cognitive learning performance well in an AOD activity, 2) how it can be optimized for a better adaptation to an online environment, and 3) what cognitive learning patterns can be found under an optimized scheme. The results proved that with a small degree of optimization the revised Bloom’s taxonomy scheme could still help the researchers observe students’ cognitive learning performance from a very comprehensive perspective. The optimized scheme helped the authors identified four cognitive learning patterns in the AOD.

Tianxiao Yang

Pavlov, Y. (2021). Audiovisual translation tasks facilitate deep learning in students of Translation Studies. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual International Conference on Teaching Foreign Languages in the Polycultural World: Traditions, Innovations, Perspectives Held on 25 March 2021 in Minsk (Belarus), 131–135. [in Russian]

Abstract

The task on direct or reverse subtitling of a video fragment — an element of audiovisual translation — has shown positive results in foreign language learners. This task can be adapted in the training of future translators. It stimulates students’ complex cognitive processes and facilitates their deep learning. Students learn to apply translation principles and use the mother tongue more flexibly through reflection, reasoning, analysis of the original’s purpose, use of relevant prior knowledge in new contexts, synthesis of ideas, and justification of translation solutions. A preliminary task can be used in support of the subtitling task whereby students compare and contrast their own translations of video fragments with the existing official translation.

Koszalka, T. A., Pavlov, Y., & Wu, Y. (2021). The informed use of pre-work activities in collaborative asynchronous online discussions: The exploration of idea exchange, content focus, and deep learning. Computers & Education, 161, 104067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104067

Abstract

Asynchronous online discussions (AODs) can fail to benefit student learning in online classes if they are not designed to promote higher-order thinking. AODs can be designed as collaborative learning events that prompt students to go beyond the reproduction of basic content. The purpose of this study was to describe student participation, interaction, and levels of learning in AODs following pre-work activities. The pre-work in this study was conceptualized as socio-cognitive scaffolding. It engaged students in common activities where everyone experienced the same content preparation prior to the AOD. During the AOD students were prompted to share, discuss, and validate their understanding of the content. The study was conducted with 49 students in a graduate-level project management course. Results revealed that students were engaged in discussions of content-related material and showed evidence of deep learning during the AODs. Specifically, students analyzed, evaluated, and synthesized information during the collaboration. Results suggested that pre-work activities can be a promising strategy in the design of AODs.

2020


Yang, T., Cho, M.-H., & Niu, Z. (2020, November 2–7). Investigating students’ learning experiences in marketing MOOCs: A content analysis [Paper presentation]. 2020 Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology—Virtual Convention, United States.

Abstract

Since 2010, MOOCs dealing with marketing have flourished; however, little research has been conducted on students’ evaluation of their learning experiences. Through a content analysis of MOOC learners’ reviews collected from Classcentral.com, this study was designed to investigate aspects of the experiences students valued while learning in marketing MOOCs. Future directions for the improvement of marketing MOOCs are discussed.

Tianxiao Yang

Hromalik, C. D., & Koszalka, T. A. (2020, November 18–22). Self-regulated language learning: A model for community college students [Paper presentation]. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) 2020 Virtual Online Convention, United States.

Christopher D. Hromalik & Tiffany A. Koszalka—ACTFL 2020 Paper Presentation

Christopher Hromalik

Yang, T., & Lei, J. (2020). 在线教育的理论基础与发展趋势 [The development and theoretical foundation of online education]. Educational Research, 41(8), 30–35.

Abstract

The article provides a comprehensive view of how online education evolved and discusses the tendencies of its development. The article was published in Educational Research, which is one of the most influential academic journals in the whole educational field of China. The article was also reprinted by Xinhua Digest, which is another prominent social science journal in China.

Pavlov, Y. (2020). Review of the book Lingua Latina per se illustrata. Pars I: Familia Romana, by H. Ørberg. Studia Philologica, 9, 242–245. [in Russian]

Wang, L. (2020, April 17–21). Investigating the effectiveness of self-regulation learning strategies on undergraduates’ perception of motivation in online courses [Paper presentation]. 2020 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-regulation learning strategies training on the academic motivation of undergraduate students. Therefore, two twelve classes of undergraduates were selected as the sample. One of the classes was chosen as the experimental group who were taught the self-regulation learning strategies for four 40-minute sessions and the control group didn’t receive anything. At first, the experimental group was tested with motivated strategies for learning questionnaires (MSLQ), and academic motivation, and then the scores of the two groups were compared in post-tests. The design of the research was a quasi-experimental method with pre-test and post-test. Data were analyzed by calculating the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results of the study indicated that the teaching of self-regulation learning strategies has had a significant effect on the academic motivation of undergraduates in online courses.

Lei Wang Fall 2021 headshot

Liu, R., & Wang, L. (2020, April 17–21). Effects of immersive virtual reality-based classroom on student engagement in science lessons [Paper presentation]. 2020 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Abstract

Virtual Reality (VR) technology has been applied to different educational subjects and there is some empirical evidence indicating its potential benefits for students’ learning. However, many studies have applied non-immersive VR to science subjects, but few have focused on the use of Immersive VR (IVR) in everyday classrooms. We developed and implemented an IVR-based teaching platform containing a set of systematic science lessons that students can engage in with Head-Mounted Displays in classrooms. Our quasi-experimental approach employed a pretest and posttest to measure academic achievement and questionnaires to measure engagement and technology acceptance. A total of 90 sixth graders from two classes were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group engaged with the science lessons using Head-Mounted Displays, whereas the control group learned the same material through traditional teaching methods. The results revealed that adopting IVR science lessons in the classroom can improve students’ academic achievement and engagement.

Lei Wang Fall 2021 headshot

Salim, Z., Wang, L., & Koszalka, T. A. (2020, April 17–21). A rubric to assess learning resources using principles of design and learning: An addition to instructional designer’s toolbox [Paper presentation]. 2020 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Abstract

Technology advancements give rise to resources promising to prompt learning. However, resources often fail to integrate principles of learning, therefore, inhibit learning. To aid in designing effective learning resources, a rubric was developed based on theoretical foundations of Generative Learning, Cognitive Flexibility, and Reflective Thinking. This rubric is designed to assess a learning resource’s ability to prompt deep learning. This study aimed to illustrate the process of developing this learning resources rubric.

Zeenar Salim

Liu, R., Wang, L., Lei, J., Wang, Q., & Ren, Y. (2020). Effects of an immersive virtual reality-based classroom on students’ learning performance in science lessons. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(6), 2034–2049. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13028

Abstract

The increased availability and development of immersive technologies have given students growing opportunities to engage in different educational subjects. However, there is a lack of empirical research exploring the educational influence of using Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) in science classrooms. To address this gap, this study developed a series of IVR-based science lessons for middle-school students and further examined these lessons’ effects on learning performance. Our quasi-experimental approach employed a pretest and posttest to measure academic achievement and questionnaires to measure engagement and technology acceptance. A total of 90 sixth-grade students from two classes were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group engaged with the science lessons using Head-Mounted Displays, whereas the control group learned the same material through traditional teaching methods. The results revealed that the experimental group obtained significantly higher academic achievement and engagement scores (cognitive, behavioral, emotional and social) than the control group. Moreover, the experimental group had a high level of technology acceptance for IVR usage in classrooms. Our study provides empirical evidence for IVR’s use in science education. Furthermore, it also sheds light on how to develop and implement an IVR-based classroom for formal educational purposes.

Wilhelm-Chapin, M. K., & Koszalka, T. A. (2020). Graduate students’ use and perceived value of learning resources in learning the content in an online course. TechTrends, 64, 361–372.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-019-00464-5

Abstract

This study focused on student-content interactions and engagement in an online graduate course. Student descriptions of their experiences and learning processes in relation to digital course resources were examined to understand how and why resources were used. Fourteen students provided detailed explanations of their use and perceived value of resources in gaining content knowledge. Results were mapped by whole group to examine patterns of behavior in use of course e-text, video tutorials, and self-check quizzes. Interactions with course e-text and video tutorials – reported as the primary sources for learning content – were also mapped on an individual level. Student explanations were then examined through the lens of Generative Learning Theory to further describe students process for learning content. Continued study of connections between learning resources and student-content interaction and engagement may inform effective and efficient design of online educational experiences.

2019


Lei, J., Zhang, L., Wang, Q., Cheng, J., & Yang, T. (2019, October 21–25). Digital natives as preservice teachers: What technology do they use and how [Paper presentation]. 2019 Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Las Vegas, NV, United States.

Abstract

Based on survey data collected from 48 college students enrolled in teacher education programs, this study focused on “digital natives” as preservice teachers to examine their beliefs, attitudes, and technology experiences and expertise, identify the strengths and weaknesses in their technology knowledge and skills, and explore what technology preparation was needed to prepare them to integrate technology in their future classrooms.

Lili Zhang

Pavlov, Y., Wu, Y., & Koszalka, T. A. (2019, October 21–25). Designing collaborative asynchronous online discussions for deep learning: Poster of a design framework [Poster presentation]. Association for Educational Communications and Technology International Convention, Las Vegas, NV, United States.

Yuri Pavlov

Koszalka, T. A., Wilhelm-Chapin, M. K., Hromalik, C. D., Pavlov, Y., & Zhang, L. (2019). Prompting deep learning with interactive technologies: Theoretical perspectives in designing interactive learning resources and environments. In P. Díaz, A. Ioannou, K. K. Bhagat, & J. M. Spector (Eds.), Learning in a digital world: Perspective on interactive technologies for formal and informal education (pp. 13–36). Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-8265-9_2

Abstract

Deep content learning requires learners to think about content. Interacting with digital resources and interactive technology-based instructional environments does not guarantee engagement in content thinking. Formal and informal instructional activities and environments are being inundated with opportunities for learners to interact in multiple ways with content through emerging interactive technologies. Questions are being raised as to whether these interactions are leading to critical thinking and deeper content learning. It is not enough to merely interact or “play with” technology resources, rather learners must cognitively manipulate, think about, and reflect on content purposefully, in multiple and flexible ways, throughout these interactions to reach deeper knowledge. This chapter provides a conceptual description of learning and argues for a set of common guidelines to design learning resources and learning environments that integrate interactive technologies in ways that support learners in making meaningful content connections. This set of guidelines was drawn from a synthesis of overlapping tenets defined in generative learning, cognitive-flexibility, and reflection theories and is supported by a multitude of research investigations. Examples of these guidelines in-use, directly integrated into resources or through supporting instructional resources, show how learners can benefit from physical interactions that prompt thinking to achieve deeper content knowledge.

2018


Hromalik, C. D., & Koszalka, T. A. (2018). Self-regulated digital learning resource use in an online language course. Distance Education, 39(4), 528–547. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2018.1520044

Abstract

This study investigated how community college students in an online introductory-level language course self-regulated their learning while using digital learning resources. An analysis of reflective journals revealed that learners reported engaging with resources in ways consistent with the six dimensions of self-regulated learning. Only learners who demonstrated higher levels of oral proficiency reported monitoring performance. There were also differences in use of time and methods of learning used by learners at different performance levels. All participants struggled to remain motivated throughout the course. These findings offer evidence that providing scaffolding for monitoring performance, methods of learning, use of time, and motivation may be helpful to online language learners.