Publications

Generative Learning and its Application to Learning Resources

Authors: Mary K. Wilhelm-Chapin & Tiffany A. Koszalka

Abstract: Generative Learning Theory (GLT) suggests that learning occurs when learners are both physically and cognitively active in organizing and integrating new information into their existing knowledge structures. The process of generating relationships among new and existing knowledge leads to meaning-making that leads to deeper understanding of content. Thus, incorporating GLT principles into learning resources should prompt learners to engage more deeply with instructional content. This paper provides an overview of GLT theoretical perspectives, research, and practices, summarizing points for the design of learning resources.  Read more...

 

Cognitive Flexibility and its Application to Learning Resources

Authors: Jiaming Cheng & Tiffany A Koszalka

Abstract: Cognitive Flexibility Theory (CFT) suggests that deep learning requires learners to engage with new content from multiple perspectives and in flexible ways of thinking. Research on CFT-informed learning environments suggests that flexible thinking during learning activities supports the development of higher order thinking skills (e.g. problem solving) and prompts positive changes in the learner’s affective domain. Thus, incorporating CFT principles into learning resources should prompt learners to engage deeply with instructional content. This paper provides an overview of theoretical, research, and practice CFT principles, summarizing points for learning resources design.  Read more...

 

Level of Engagement and its Application to Learning Resources

Authors: Tianxiao Yang & Tiffany A Koszalka

Abstract: The level of engagement (LoE) at which learners attend to instructional activities can determine the depth at which content learning occurs. Engagement at higher levels of learning suggest deeper learning. Learning outcomes have traditionally been defined in three domains, cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Cognitive represents progressively varying levels of mental or thinking skills. Affective represents progressively varying levels of feelings and emotions. Psychomotor represents progressively varying levels of physical skills. Each level of learning provides a foundation for the next higher level. Focusing instruction to engage learners at the appropriate level(s) of learning suggests the need to identify expected learning domain outcomes. Thus, the more learners successfully engage at the higher domain levels, the deeper the learning of content. Incorporating LoE principles into learning resource design thus, may ensure that learners engage at desired LoE to reach desired learning outcomes. This paper provides an overview of theoretical, research, and practical LoE principles, summarizing points for learning resources design.  Read more...

 

Reflection and its Application to Learning Resources

Author:  Tiffany A Koszalka

Abstract: Reflection is a process of engaging intellectually and affectively in situations, activities, or resources to develop deep understandings and appreciations of one’s experiences. It involves considering observations during or after an experience to affect future practices. Reflection theories suggest that learning is supported when learners explore and monitor their own knowledge, when they think about how the meaning and application of new knowledge was used in their recent experiences, and when they explore application of their new knowledge to other contexts, beyond their immediate experiences. Thus, incorporating reflection principles into learning resources should prompt learners to engage more deeply in instructional content by supporting self-assessment, meaning-making, translating learning experiences into future practices, and testing implications and transfer of these concepts to new situations. This paper provides an overview of theoretical perspectives, practices, and research on reflection, summarizing points for the design of learning resources.  Read more...