• Wilhelm-Chapin, M. K., & Koszalka, T. A. (2020). Graduate students’ use and perceived value of learning resources in learning the content in an online course. TechTrends, 1–12. doi:10.1007/s11528-019-00464-5

Abstract: This study focused on student-content interactions and engagement in an online graduate course. Student descriptions of their experiences and learning processes in relation to digital course resources were examined to understand how and why resources were used. Fourteen students provided detailed explanations of their use and perceived value of resources in gaining content knowledge. Results were mapped by whole group to examine patterns of behavior in use of course e-text, video tutorials, and self-check quizzes. Interactions with course e-text and video tutorials – reported as the primary sources for learning content – were also mapped on an individual level. Student explanations were then examined through the lens of Generative Learning Theory to further describe students process for learning content. Continued study of connections between learning resources and student-content interaction and engagement may inform effective and efficient design of online educational experiences.

  • Koszalka, T. A., Wilhelm-Chapin, M. K., Hromalik, C. D., Pavlov, Y., & Zhang, L. (2019). Prompting deep learning with interactive technologies: Theoretical perspectives in designing interactive learning resources and environments. In P. Díaz, A. Ioannou, K. K. Bhagat, & J. M. Spector (Eds.), Learning in a digital world: Perspective on interactive technologies for formal and informal education (pp. 13–36). Singapore: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-8265-9_2

Abstract: Deep content learning requires learners to think about content. Interacting with digital resources and interactive technology-based instructional environments does not guarantee engagement in content thinking. Formal and informal instructional activities and environments are being inundated with opportunities for learners to interact in multiple ways with content through emerging interactive technologies. Questions are being raised as to whether these interactions are leading to critical thinking and deeper content learning. It is not enough to merely interact or “play with” technology resources, rather learners must cognitively manipulate, think about, and reflect on content purposefully, in multiple and flexible ways, throughout these interactions to reach deeper knowledge. This chapter provides a conceptual description of learning and argues for a set of common guidelines to design learning resources and learning environments that integrate interactive technologies in ways that support learners in making meaningful content connections. This set of guidelines was drawn from a synthesis of overlapping tenets defined in generative learning, cognitive-flexibility, and reflection theories and is supported by a multitude of research investigations. Examples of these guidelines in-use, directly integrated into resources or through supporting instructional resources, show how learners can benefit from physical interactions that prompt thinking to achieve deeper content knowledge.

  • Hromalik, C. D., & Koszalka, T. A. (2018). Self-regulated digital learning resource use in an online language course. Distance Education, 39(4), 528–547. doi:10.1080/01587919.2018.1520044

Abstract: This study investigated how community college students in an online introductory-level language course self-regulated their learning while using digital learning resources. An analysis of reflective journals revealed that learners reported engaging with resources in ways consistent with the six dimensions of self-regulated learning. Only learners who demonstrated higher levels of oral proficiency reported monitoring performance. There were also differences in use of time and methods of learning used by learners at different performance levels. All participants struggled to remain motivated throughout the course. These findings offer evidence that providing scaffolding for monitoring performance, methods of learning, use of time, and motivation may be helpful to online language learners.